2. Juli Wie erwartet verlässt Abwehrchef Sokratis den BVB. Der griechische Nationalspieler heuert in London bim FC Arsenal an. 2. Juli Dortmund. Der Wechsel von Sokratis von Borussia Dortmund zum FC Arsenal: Die meisten BVB-Fans werden die Nachricht wohl mit einer. Sokratis, mit vollem Namen Sokratis Papastathopoulos [soˈkratis papastaˈθopulos], (griechisch Σωκράτης Παπασταθόπουλος; * 9. Juni in Kalamata) ist.
The idea that there are certain virtues formed a common thread in Socrates's teachings. These virtues represented the most important qualities for a person to have, foremost of which were the philosophical or intellectual virtues.
Socrates stressed that " the unexamined life is not worth living [and] ethical virtue is the only thing that matters.
It is argued that Socrates believed "ideals belong in a world only the wise man can understand",  making the philosopher the only type of person suitable to govern others.
In Plato's dialogue the Republic , Socrates openly objected to the democracy that ran Athens during his adult life.
It was not only Athenian democracy: Socrates found short of ideal any government that did not conform to his presentation of a perfect regime led by philosophers, and Athenian government was far from that.
It is, however, possible that the Socrates of Plato's Republic is colored by Plato's own views. During the last years of Socrates's life, Athens was in continual flux due to political upheaval.
Democracy was at last overthrown by a junta known as the Thirty Tyrants , led by Plato's relative, Critias , who had once been a student and friend of Socrates.
The Tyrants ruled for about a year before the Athenian democracy was reinstated, at which point it declared an amnesty for all recent events.
Socrates's opposition to democracy is often denied, and the question is one of the biggest philosophical debates when trying to determine exactly what Socrates believed.
The strongest argument of those who claim Socrates did not actually believe in the idea of philosopher kings is that the view is expressed no earlier than Plato's Republic , which is widely considered one of Plato's "Middle" dialogues and not representative of the historical Socrates's views.
Furthermore, according to Plato's Apology of Socrates , an "early" dialogue, Socrates refused to pursue conventional politics; he often stated he could not look into other's matters or tell people how to live their lives when he did not yet understand how to live his own.
He believed he was a philosopher engaged in the pursuit of Truth, and did not claim to know it fully. Socrates's acceptance of his death sentence after his conviction can also be seen to support this view.
It is often claimed much of the anti-democratic leanings are from Plato, who was never able to overcome his disgust at what was done to his teacher.
In any case, it is clear Socrates thought the rule of the Thirty Tyrants was also objectionable; when called before them to assist in the arrest of a fellow Athenian, Socrates refused and narrowly escaped death before the Tyrants were overthrown.
He did, however, fulfill his duty to serve as Prytanis when a trial of a group of Generals who presided over a disastrous naval campaign were judged; even then, he maintained an uncompromising attitude, being one of those who refused to proceed in a manner not supported by the laws, despite intense pressure.
Socrates's apparent respect for democracy is one of the themes emphasized in the play Socrates on Trial by Andrew David Irvine.
Irvine argues that it was because of his loyalty to Athenian democracy that Socrates was willing to accept the verdict of his fellow citizens. As Irvine puts it, "During a time of war and great social and intellectual upheaval, Socrates felt compelled to express his views openly, regardless of the consequences.
As a result, he is remembered today, not only for his sharp wit and high ethical standards, but also for his loyalty to the view that in a democracy the best way for a man to serve himself, his friends, and his city—even during times of war—is by being loyal to, and by speaking publicly about, the truth.
In the Dialogues of Plato, though Socrates sometimes seems to support a mystical side, discussing reincarnation and the mystery religions , this is generally attributed to Plato.
In the culmination of the philosophic path as discussed in Plato's Symposium , one comes to the Sea of Beauty or to the sight of "the beautiful itself" C ; only then can one become wise.
In the Symposium , Socrates credits his speech on the philosophic path to his teacher, the priestess Diotima , who is not even sure if Socrates is capable of reaching the highest mysteries.
In the Meno , he refers to the Eleusinian Mysteries , telling Meno he would understand Socrates's answers better if only he could stay for the initiations next week.
Further confusions result from the nature of these sources, insofar as the Platonic Dialogues are arguably the work of an artist-philosopher, whose meaning does not volunteer itself to the passive reader nor again the lifelong scholar.
According to Olympiodorus the Younger in his Life of Plato ,  Plato himself "received instruction from the writers of tragedy" before taking up the study of philosophy.
His works are, indeed, dialogues; Plato's choice of this, the medium of Sophocles, Euripides, and the fictions of theatre, may reflect the ever-interpretable nature of his writings, as he has been called a "dramatist of reason".
What is more, the first word of nearly all Plato's works is a significant term for that respective dialogue, and is used with its many connotations in mind.
Finally, the Phaedrus and the Symposium each allude to Socrates's coy delivery of philosophic truths in conversation; the Socrates of the Phaedrus goes so far as to demand such dissembling and mystery in all writing.
These indirect methods may fail to satisfy some readers. It was this sign that prevented Socrates from entering into politics. In the Phaedrus , we are told Socrates considered this to be a form of "divine madness", the sort of insanity that is a gift from the gods and gives us poetry , mysticism , love , and even philosophy itself.
Today, such a voice would be classified under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as a command hallucination.
Socrates practiced and advocated divination. He was prominently lampooned in Aristophanes 's comedy The Clouds , produced when Socrates was in his mid-forties; he said at his trial according to Plato that the laughter of the theater was a harder task to answer than the arguments of his accusers.
In the play, Socrates is ridiculed for his dirtiness, which is associated with the Laconizing fad; also in plays by Callias , Eupolis , and Telecleides.
Other comic poets who lampooned Socrates include Mnesimachus and Ameipsias. In all of these, Socrates and the Sophists were criticized for "the moral dangers inherent in contemporary thought and literature".
Plato, Xenophon, and Aristotle are the main sources for the historical Socrates; however, Xenophon and Plato were students of Socrates, and they may idealize him; however, they wrote the only extended descriptions of Socrates that have come down to us in their complete form.
Aristotle refers frequently, but in passing, to Socrates in his writings. Almost all of Plato's works center on Socrates.
However, Plato's later works appear to be more his own philosophy put into the mouth of his mentor. The Socratic Dialogues are a series of dialogues written by Plato and Xenophon in the form of discussions between Socrates and other persons of his time, or as discussions between Socrates's followers over his concepts.
Plato's Phaedo is an example of this latter category. Although his Apology is a monologue delivered by Socrates, it is usually grouped with the Dialogues.
The Apology professes to be a record of the actual speech Socrates delivered in his own defense at the trial. In the Athenian jury system, an "apology" is composed of three parts: Plato generally does not place his own ideas in the mouth of a specific speaker; he lets ideas emerge via the Socratic Method , under the guidance of Socrates.
Most of the dialogues present Socrates applying this method to some extent, but nowhere as completely as in the Euthyphro. In this dialogue, Socrates and Euthyphro go through several iterations of refining the answer to Socrates's question, " What is the pious, and what the impious?
In Plato's Dialogues, learning appears as a process of remembering. The soul , before its incarnation in the body, was in the realm of Ideas very similar to the Platonic "Forms".
There, it saw things the way they truly are, rather than the pale shadows or copies we experience on earth. By a process of questioning, the soul can be brought to remember the ideas in their pure form, thus bringing wisdom.
Especially for Plato's writings referring to Socrates, it is not always clear which ideas brought forward by Socrates or his friends actually belonged to Socrates and which of these may have been new additions or elaborations by Plato—this is known as the Socratic Problem.
Generally, the early works of Plato are considered to be close to the spirit of Socrates, whereas the later works—including Phaedo and Republic —are considered to be possibly products of Plato's elaborations.
Immediately, the students of Socrates set to work both on exercising their perceptions of his teachings in politics and also on developing many new philosophical schools of thought.
Some of Athens' controversial and anti-democratic tyrants were contemporary or posthumous students of Socrates including Alcibiades and Critias.
While "Socrates dealt with moral matters and took no notice at all of nature in general",  in his Dialogues, Plato would emphasize mathematics with metaphysical overtones mirroring that of Pythagoras —the former who would dominate Western thought well into the Renaissance.
Aristotle himself was as much of a philosopher as he was a scientist with extensive work in the fields of biology and physics.
Socratic thought which challenged conventions, especially in stressing a simplistic way of living, became divorced from Plato's more detached and philosophical pursuits.
This idea was inherited by one of Socrates's older students, Antisthenes , who became the originator of another philosophy in the years after Socrates's death: While some of the later contributions of Socrates to Hellenistic Era culture and philosophy as well as the Roman Era have been lost to time, his teachings began a resurgence in both medieval Europe and the Islamic Middle East alongside those of Aristotle and Stoicism.
Socrates is mentioned in the dialogue Kuzari by Jewish philosopher and rabbi Yehuda Halevi in which a Jew instructs the Khazar king about Judaism.
Socrates influence grew in Western Europe during the fourteenth century as Plato's dialogues were made available in Latin by Marsilio Ficino and Xenophon's Socratic writings were translated by Basilios Bessarion.
To this day, different versions of the Socratic method are still used in classroom and law school discourse to expose underlying issues in both subject and the speaker.
Over the past century, numerous plays about Socrates have also focused on Socrates's life and influence. One of the most recent has been Socrates on Trial , a play based on Aristophanes's Clouds and Plato's Apology , Crito , and Phaedo , all adapted for modern performance.
Evaluation of and reaction to Socrates has been undertaken by both historians and philosophers from the time of his death to the present day with a multitude of conclusions and perspectives.
Although he was not directly prosecuted for his connection to Critias, leader of the Spartan-backed Thirty Tyrants , and "showed considerable personal courage in refusing to submit to [them]", he was seen by some as a figure who mentored oligarchs who became abusive tyrants, and undermined Athenian democracy.
The Sophistic movement that he railed at in life survived him, but by the 3rd century BC, was rapidly overtaken by the many philosophical schools of thought that Socrates influenced.
Socrates's death is considered iconic and his status as a martyr of philosophy overshadows most contemporary and posthumous criticism. However, Xenophon mentions Socrates's "arrogance" and that he was "an expert in the art of primping" or "self-presentation".
Some modern scholarship holds that, with so much of his own thought obscured and possibly altered by Plato, it is impossible to gain a clear picture of Socrates amid all the contradictory evidence.
That both Cynicism and Stoicism , which carried heavy influence from Socratic thought, were unlike or even contrary to Platonism further illustrates this.
The ambiguity and lack of reliability serves as the modern basis of criticism—that it is nearly impossible to know the real Socrates.
Some controversy also exists about Socrates's attitude towards homosexuality  and as to whether or not he believed in the Olympian gods , was monotheistic, or held some other religious viewpoint.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the classical Greek philosopher. For other uses of Socrates, see Socrates disambiguation.
For the Attic orator, see Isocrates. Prodicus , Anaxagoras , Archelaus. Virtually all subsequent Western philosophy , but Plato and Xenophon in particular.
Plato from Raphael 's The School of Athens — Retrieved 20 November Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary. The Cambridge Companion to Greek Tragedy.
Retrieved 19 November Reason and Religion in Socratic Philosophy. But the year of Socrates's birth is probably only an inference from Plato [who] has Socrates casually describe himself as having lived seventy years.
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The historical Socrates undoubtedly existed, but he did not write anything Socrates is especially pure because he does not write.
Blitz, Ann Ward - Socrates: Reason or Unreason as the Foundation of European Identity p. As Socrates did not write anything and assigned to the living word and to dialogue with his followers all of his thought, The Schools of the Imperial Age p.
Socrates explains to Meno: This is why Socrates did not write anything; he had nothing to teach that could be fixed in writing New Ideas for an Old Relationship p.
They achieved renown precisely because they did not write at all. The vice of graphorrhoea was frequently contrasted with the virtue of such ancient philosophers as Pythagoras, Aristarchus, Favorinus and Socrates, who did not write anything Ethics for Criminal Justice Professionals.
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In addition to Plato and Xenophon , each of the following is credited by some source as having added to the genre: It is unlikely Plato was the first in this field Vlastos, p.
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An Introduction to Western Philosophy. Socrates, Athens and the Search for the Good Life. On 4 October , Papastathopoulos scored his first for the club, setting the Gunners on their way to a comfortable victory over Qarabag in the UEFA Europa League group stage.
After just four minutes of play in Baku, the centre-back was left unmarked inside the opposing penalty area, deflecting the ball home after the initial header fell into his path.
The defender will undergo scans to determine the severity of the sprain but it appears unlikely that he will return to fitness in time.
Papastathopoulos was called up for the Greek senior team on 1 February  and made his debut on 5 February in the 1—0 friendly victory against the Czech Republic.
The Greece squad for UEFA Euro was announced by Otto Rehhagel on 27 May , and Papastathopoulos was the unfortunate player to be cut from the provisional squad of 24 to the final man selection.
Papastathopoulos became the first player to be sent off at UEFA Euro during the opening game of the tournament against co-hosts Poland after receiving two yellow cards, following what pundits decried as two poor decisions by referee Carlos Velasco Carballo.
However, the Greeks were eventually defeated 5—3 in a penalty shootout by the Central American champions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Sokratis Papastathopoulos Sokratis playing for Arsenal in Greece Runner-up European U19 Championship Retrieved 12 August Archived from the original on 5 August Retrieved 11 June Napoli — Football Match Report — October 5, ".
Retrieved 25 October Retrieved 2 November Archived from the original on 24 July Retrieved 20 July Retrieved 22 July Archived from the original PDF on 15 May La Gazzetta dello Sport in Italian.
Archived from the original on 18 May Retrieved 16 January Sokratis Papastathopoulos joins Werder Bremen on loan from Genoa". Retrieved 28 July I did not join Dortmund for the money".
Archived from the original on 5 November Retrieved 4 January Retrieved 11 February Retrieved 25 February Retrieved 16 April Dortmund wins a title".
Retrieved 27 May Retrieved 17 September Retrieved 14 October Retrieved 17 October Borussia Dortmund held to draw by Apoel".
Retrieved 4 November Stuttgart 2—1 Borussia Dortmund". Retrieved 17 November Trio score first goals as Gunners cruise in Azerbaijan".
Archived from the original on 2 February Poland 1—1 Greece — as it happened". Retrieved 9 June Retrieved 30 June
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